Humanistic Theories of Psychopathology (SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology)
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To be mentally healthy, individuals must take personal responsibility for their actions. Each person, simply by being, is inherently worthy. The ultimate goal of living is to attain personal growth and understanding. Deficit need or D-needs 9 L Payofelin 16 You just clipped your first slide!Basically, the biological approach to psychopathy is assuming that the mental disorder the person is suffering from is caused by faulty biological mechanisms.
The mental disorders are treated like your usual illness in that they are cured by removing the root cause of the illness to restore the body back to its normal state.
The biological approach says that mental disorders illnesses are caused by four things:. For a long time, psychologists have studied identical twins to try to investigate this theory that psychopathy or abnormalities are genetic. Psychologists will compare identical twins to see if when one twin shows symptoms of a mental disorder, whether the other one will too. For some mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, if one twin has it then the other one will often have it too—this shows that it could very well be genetic.
Once again genes play a huge role in this theory of how mental disorders come about. Genes determine a lot of functions in our body, they determine hormone and various neurotransmitter levels. How does this cause a mental disorder? Well, take the neurotransmitter serotonin for example. The levels of serotonin will be determined, for the most part, by your genes. High levels of serotonin have been associated with anxiety and low levels have been associated with depression.
This shows that a person's mental state can rely on their hormone or neurotransmitter levels and thus their biochemistry or neuroanatomy. Some research such as that done by Torrey in shows that the occurrence of certain mental disorders can be related to the exposure the individual had to certain viruses whilst in the womb.
Torrey found that the mothers of individuals with schizophrenia had contracted a specific strain of flu during pregnancy. This virus may then stay in the child's brain until certain hormones activate it i. Basically, the behavioural approach to psychopathy suggests that the response that a person makes to their environment, albeit internal or external, are what determines their mental state rather than their underlying pathology or other such things.
This approach is based on the idea that abnormal behaviors are no different from normal ones in terms of how we learn them and are all learned through social learning or classical conditioning. Also, it is thought that the environment the individual is in will be partly to blame for their mental disorder.
For instance, if an individual were to show depressive symptoms or behaviours, someone else might be more inclined to help that person. Also, things we see in the media can influence our mental state, for example, if you saw someone on TV crash their car you might then develop a phobia of crashing your own car.
The psychodynamic approach is essentially based on the view that the abnormal behaviour that an individual is showing is due to underlying psychological conflicts that they may not even be aware of.Scotch tape dispenser wheel
Freud is the most well-known psychologist that believed in this approach. Freud believed that it was psychological rather than physical things that cause mental disorders such as unresolved conflicts of childhood. There are a few different factors that were believed to make up an individual's personality and these were:.
It was believed that conflicts between these different parts of an individual's personality would result in things such as anxiety. The ego defense would then try and deal with these emotions. Freud also believed that children didn't have the emotional maturity to be able to deal with traumas and thus would repress them if they occurred. If a similar trauma then occurred later in the individual's life then the repressed feelings that they felt originally would be re-experienced and mental disorders such as depression may develop.
The cognitive approach is based on the idea that the way that we perceive, reason and judge the environment and the world that we're in is what determines our behaviour. If this cognitive thinking is distorted, lacking or dysfunctional then abnormal behavior or mental disorders will occur.
There are four different concepts regarding human cognition and these are:. Psychologists will use these concepts to judge an individual's mental state—for example when overhearing someone say 'I don't like what he's wearing today', your immediate thought is 'it must be me they are speaking about! This is a great article, I think all of these approaches are just as affective. I would vote for all of them.Crimpzange für aderendhülsen und kabelschuhe
This helped a lot. I was reading my text for my class for college but having a hard time understanding after awhile because it all sounded the same. This helped me break it down that I understood It better. Marine Biology. Electrical Engineering.Permalink Print. The humanistic approach in psychology developed in the s and 70s in the United States as a response to the continual struggle between behavioral theorists and cognitive psychologists. The humanists brought in a new perspective, believing that the study of psychology should focus not just on the purely mechanistic aspects of cognition, nor purely on the impact of environment on behavior, but rather felt that the emphasis of psychological study should be on the particulars of human experience.
For the humanist psychologist, the goal of psychological study isn't so much the total understanding of human behavior, but rather the ability to help people deal with life more successfully. In this sense, it is a highly therapeutic approach, as opposed to a purely theoretical one.
The humanistic approach has its roots in existential philosophy. Throughout the latter half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Camus, and Sartre began to view the condition of man's existence on earth as somewhat "absurd". In an increasingly post-Christian European society, they felt that man had finally reached a state in which an honest appraisal of reality would give one the impression that the universe was neither benevolent nor malevolent, but rather totally indifferent to the trials and tribulations of humankind.
Instead of reacting to this news depressively, however, the existentialists felt empowered with a sense of freedom and personal responsibility. Humanistic psychology takes its approach from this philosophy, attempting to help people come to terms with their often painful existence in the world by accepting the responsibility of their existential freedom. One of the first major proponents of humanistic psychology was Abraham Maslow.
Coming from a background of developmental psychology, Maslow attempted to develop a theory by which to explain the diversity of human needs and motivation. In the course of his studies, he was able to develop a model to express these needs that has since become quite popular across the world, being referred to as either the " hierarchy of needs " or sometimes "Maslow's Pyramid".
For Maslow, the goal of any human being is to reach a state of "self-actualization" in which all their needs are met and a state of contented happiness is achieved. However, these needs must be met in a particular order. The base of the pyramid shows the physical needs that all humans share, such as the need to eat, drink, have shelter from the elements, and so on. According to Maslow, higher forms of happiness are not achievable so long as these needs are not met.
Moving up the pyramid from there, one must have safety needs met, then one must feel love towards and from his friends and family. After this, one must receive self-validation and a feeling of self-worth from one's self. Lastly, a state of self-actualization and creative work is possible.
However, if any of the levels of the pyramid goes unfulfilled at any time, the subject must return to that level. In other words, self-actualization isn't a permanent state, but rather a continuous battle. The primary idea to retain from this model is that human motivation is complex, and while working towards the primary goal of self-actualization, their particular needs and pursuits might change dramatically.
For other thinkers like Rollo May, the problem was less with deciphering human behavior and motivation and more with simply helping humans exist in a state of existential crisis. Like many philosophers and psychologists with existential leanings, May felt that the absence of an innate moral structure in the universe usually led to people experience anxiety and distress because their expectations of the universe were simply not being met.
His school of existential psychology is intended to deal with exactly this, the problems that arise from human consciousness working against the problems inherent in existence.
Generally speaking, the problem for May is that most people feel as if the universe is either against them or on their side, and they approach life accordingly. Since this is not reality, May's therapeutic approach was to attempt to help people accept the coincidental and "meaningless" state of their existence by demonstrating that freedom was the natural consequence of this meaningless state, and that the lack of a prescribed fate was a cause to be celebrated rather than feared.
Carl Rogers was another of the important figures in early humanistic psychology. He was the first to advocate for the importance of "unconditional positive regard", a way of viewing one's self in which one is unconditionally positive and accepting, maintaining the right to be critical without being judgmental or overly harsh. For Rogers, this state of positive regard towards one's self was essential to psychological development, and in maintaining strong personal relationships.
Therapeutically, Rogers believed in a client-directed approach to matters. In a therapy session, he would simply listen non-judgmentally and allows his clients to speak about anything they wished, reasoning that with a little bit of guidance, people had the intelligence and self-awareness to direct their own progress towards wellness. This degree of "patient control" in clinical practice was revolutionary in the realm of psychology, and in the realm of humanistic thought in general.
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The Four Approaches To Psychopathology
No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Psychopathology 1. Psychopathologies and Their Treatments 2. General paresis, possibly schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorders. Psychophysiological disorders such as glove anesthesia, hysterical blindness. Anxiety disorders such as phobias, depression, dissociative disorders.
Somatogenic causes physical factors. Medication or surgery by psychiatrist or neurosurgeon, e. Psychotherapy to develop insights into underlying unconscious conflicts. Learning new responses and thoughts.Saul McLeodupdated Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person and the uniqueness of each individual.
Essentially, these terms refer to the same approach in psychology. Humanistic psychology is a perspective that emphasizes looking at the the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Humanistic psychology begins with the existential assumptions that people have free will and are motivated to acheive their potential and self-actualize.
The humanistic approach in psychology developed as a rebellion against what some psychologists saw as the limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic psychology. Humanism rejected the assumptions of the behaviorist perspective which is characterized as deterministic, focused on reinforcement of stimulus-response behavior and heavily dependent on animal research.
Humanistic psychology also rejected the psychodynamic approach because it is also deterministic, with unconscious irrational and instinctive forces determining human thought and behavior.
Both behaviorism and psychoanalysis are regarded as dehumanizing by humanistic psychologists. Humanistic psychology expanded its influence throughout the s and the s. Its impact can be understood in terms of three major areas :. Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences. The humanistic approach emphasizes the personal worth of the individual, the centrality of human values, and the creative, active nature of human beings.
The approach is optimistic and focuses on the noble human capacity to overcome hardship, pain and despair. Both Rogers and Maslow regarded personal growth and fulfillment in life as a basic human motive. This means that each person, in different ways, seeks to grow psychologically and continuously enhance themselves. However, Rogers and Maslow both describe different ways of how self-actualization can be achieved. Humanistic psychologists argue that objective reality is less important than a person's subjective perception and understanding of the world.
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Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Christian Paul Bolo. Roshni Patel. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Humanistic Psychology 1. Educational Applications 6. Being concern for the individual. Unconditional Positive Regard - This is a non-judgmental warmth or acceptance. Promote positive self-direction and independence 2. Develop the ability to take responsibility for what is learned. Develop creativity. Curiosity and; 5.
Have an interest in the arts It questions the medical model and the usefulness of the ever-increasing labeling of mental disorders.
It assumes that individuals have the freedom and courage to transcend biological and environmental influences to create their own future. Adopting a holistic approach, humanistic psychology emphasizes the phenomenological reality of the experiencing person in context. This entry describes both historical and current humanistic perspectives of mental health. It also indicates how deficiencies in meeting basic psychological human needs can result in psychopathology.
Humanistic psychology can restore human dignity to mainstream psychology by means of values, such as personal agency, freedom of the will, self-actualization, authenticity, and an innate motivation to make life better for the self and society.
In terms of methodology, humanistic psychology argues that the subjective and conscious experience of the individual is more important than the objective observation of behavior. Thus, it favors a phenomenological approach over scientific experimentation. They all shared the orientation described earlier but differed in their views of psychopathology.
American psychologist Carl Rogers was optimistic and positive about human nature. He believed that people are innately good, creative, rational, and motivated by the universal tendency to fulfill their potential and become self-actualized. A positive childhood experience and a supportive environment facilitated self-actualization.
Their growth tendency is arrested, and emotional problems ensue when pleasing others and receiving rewards become more important than listening to their inner voice and creating their own future. Rogers advocated a person-centered approach to counseling, education, and management.
He believed that when there is a supportive, trusting environment characterized by empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence genuinenessindividuals have the potential to solve their own problems and find their own ways to move forward.
A therapist needs to possess these qualities in order to be effective. They are motivated to become fully functioning human beings and develop positive self-identities as beings of worth and dignity.
A major source of malady and anxiety is the loss of traditional values and erosion of human dignity. Paradoxically, to preserve their sense of self, people need to learn to give up self-centeredness and reach out to others.
In other words, self-transcendence may help restore a sense of personal significance.
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